Light PolarizationGo where you feel most like yourself. - Paul Witt
spc Bd 1 Bd 3
Share This Page

Light Polarization

Light Polarization

Etienne Malus (1775 - 1812) discovered and coined the term Polarization while experimenting with a strange type of refraction in Iceland spar crystal or calcite. Until that time, scientists doubted that light could be a transverse wave traveling in ether, as they did not believe a fluid could propagate transverse waves, only solids. Sound waves, which are longitudinal waves, are not able to be polarized.

Again, Thomas Young (1773 - 1829) and Augustine Fresnel (1788 - 1827) would play a vital role in proving that light traveled in a transverse wave, but neither could adequately explain how.

Eventually, Maxwell's investigations proved the existence of electromagnetic waves which, to no ones surprise, were transverse waves.

Transverse Wave

In a transverse wave, the particles are displaced perpendicularly to the direction of travel. A wave on a lake is a transverse wave, as the actual water droplets are moved vertically, while the wave travels horizontally along the waves surface.


Unlike water waves, which are always polarized or displacing in the same direction up and down, light can polarize in any direction. In other words, the energy of light can displace the energy in any direction, up, down, left, right, or any angle between.

Light from the sun or a flame is inherently unpolarized.


Malus discovered in 1808 that reflection of light from a non-metallic surface produce at least partial polarization.

Sir David Brewster (1781 - 1868) discovered that the degree of polarization varied with the degree of incidence, and that all of the reflected light would be polarized at one particular angle of incidence, called Brewster's angle. This angle, as it turns out, occurs when the Reflected ray and Refracted ray are at right angles to one-another.

This tendency for reflected waves to be polarized explains why polarized sunglasses are able to noticeably reduce glare.

Dichroic Crystals

Dichroic crystals, such as tourmaline, absorb light of one polarization, while passing the other.

Polaroid Corporation

The young American scientist, Edwin Land (1909 - 1991), discovered he could make plastic into a polarizing material by staining a certain plastic material with iodine. Later, Edwin Land developed techniques to help see color in photography.


Home Light Speed of Light Additive and Subtractive Colors CIE 1931 Color Space Colorimetry Color Space Color Temperature Spinning Color Top Glossary of Color Terms History of Color Science Metamerism Motion After Image Munsell Color System TriStimulus Refraction Double Slit Polarization Human Eyesight The Retina Color Optical Illusions More

Play a Game

Play this simple yet fun game where you try to outrun the birds chasing you.
Play BirdBrain
Our Related Links Send Us Your Comments Link To Our Site Share Site With A Friend Our Site Map
Report A Broken Link Contact Information

If your credit card bills are out of control, here is some help in getting a handle on them.

This site is all about candles and candle making with ads to purchase candle holders, scented candles, floating candles, votive candles, pillar candles, wedding candles, gel candles, beeswax candles, jar candles and more.

Are you planning a cruise vacation? We have all kinds of cruises. We can book a European barge cruise, a Greek island cruise, a Panama cruise, Mediterranean cruise, Caribbean cruise, Hawaiian cruise or any kind of cruise you want.

Site Map | Terms of Use | Privacy & Security | Contact Us | Purchase Agreement | Send Feedback
Color Theory for the Layman
© 1996-2005 by All Rights Reserved.